Jörg Schönfelder, David De Sancho, Raul Perez-Jimenez
One of the major challenges in modern biophysics is observing and understanding conformational changes during complex molecular processes, from the fundamental protein folding to the function of molecular machines. Single-molecule techniques have been one of the major driving forces of the huge progress attained in the last few years. Recent advances in resolution of the experimental setups, aided by theoretical developments and molecular dynamics simulations, have revealed a much higher degree of complexity inside these molecular processes than previously reported using traditional ensemble measurements. This review sums up the evolution of these developments and gives an outlook on prospective discoveries.