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Thursday, January 23, 2020

Cell Death in Cells Overlying Lateral Root Primordia Facilitates Organ Growth in Arabidopsis

Sacha Escamez, Domenique André, Bernadette Sztojka, Benjamin Bollhöner, Hardy Hall, Béatrice Berthet, Ute Voß, Amnon Lers, Alexis Maizel, Magnus Andersson, Malcolm Bennett, Hannele Tuominen

Plant organ growth is widely accepted to be determined by cell division and cell expansion, but, unlike that in animals, the contribution of cell elimination has rarely been recognized. We investigated this paradigm during Arabidopsis lateral root formation, when the lateral root primordia (LRP) must traverse three overlying cell layers within the parent root. A subset of LRP-overlying cells displayed the induction of marker genes for cell types undergoing developmental cell death, and their cell death was detected by electron, confocal, and light sheet microscopy techniques. LRP growth was delayed in cell-death-deficient mutants lacking the positive cell death regulator ORESARA1/ANAC092 (ORE1). LRP growth was restored in ore1-2 knockout plants by genetically inducing cell elimination in cells overlying the LRP or by physically killing LRP-overlying cells by ablation with optical tweezers. Our results support that, in addition to previously discovered mechanisms, cell elimination contributes to regulating lateral root emergence.

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Nanoparticle trapping and routing on plasmonic nanorails in a microfluidic channel

Shengqi Yin, Fei He, Nicolas Green, and Xu Fang

Plasmonic nanostructures hold great promise for enabling advanced optical manipulation of nanoparticles in microfluidic channels, resulting from the generation of strong and controllable light focal points at the nanoscale. A primary remaining challenge in the current integration of plasmonics and microfluidics is to transport trapped nanoparticles along designated routes. Here we demonstrate through numerical simulation a plasmonic nanoparticle router that can trap and route a nanoparticle in a microfluidic channel with a continuous fluidic flow. The nanoparticle router contains a series of gold nanostrips on top of a continuous gold film. The nanostrips support both localised and propagating surface plasmons under light illumination, which underpin the trapping and routing functionalities. The nanoparticle guiding at a Y-branch junction is enabled by a small change of 50 nm in the wavelength of incident light.

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Probing Nanoparticle–Cell Interaction Using Micro-Raman Spectroscopy: Silver and Gold Nanoparticle-Induced Stress Effects on Optically Trapped Live Red Blood Cells

Surekha Barkur, Jijo Lukose, Santhosh Chidangil

Advancements in the field of nanotechnology have resulted in the emergence of a large variety of engineered nanomaterials for innumerable applications. Despite the ubiquitous use of nanomaterials in daily life, concerns regarding the potential toxicity and safety of these materials have also been raised. There is a high demand for assessing the unwanted effects of both gold and silver nanoparticles, which is increasingly being used in biomedical applications. This paper deals with the study of stress due to silver and gold nanoparticles of varying size on red blood cells (RBCs) using Raman tweezers spectroscopy. RBCs were incubated with nanoparticles of size in the 10–100 nm range with the same concentrations, and micro-Raman spectra were recorded by optically trapping the nanoparticle-treated live RBCs. Spectral modifications implicating hemoglobin deoxygenation were observed in all nanoparticle-treated RBCs. One of the probable reason for the deoxygenation trend can be the adhesion of nanoparticles onto the cell surface causing imbalance in cell functioning. Moreover, the higher spectral variations observed for silver nanoparticles indicate that oxidative stress is involved in cell damage. These mechanisms lead to the modification in the hemoglobin structure because of changes in the pH of cytoplasm, which can be detected using Raman spectroscopy.

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A Review on Optoelectrokinetics-Based Manipulation and Fabrication of Micro/Nanomaterials

Wenfeng Liang, Lianqing Liu, Junhai Wang, Xieliu Yang, Yuechao Wang, Wen Jung Li and Wenguang Yang
Optoelectrokinetics (OEK), a fusion of optics, electrokinetics, and microfluidics, has been demonstrated to offer a series of extraordinary advantages in the manipulation and fabrication of micro/nanomaterials, such as requiring no mask, programmability, flexibility, and rapidness. In this paper, we summarize a variety of differently structured OEK chips, followed by a discussion on how they are fabricated and the ways in which they work. We also review how three differently sized polystyrene beads can be separated simultaneously, how a variety of nanoparticles can be assembled, and how micro/nanomaterials can be fabricated into functional devices. Another focus of our paper is on mask-free fabrication and assembly of hydrogel-based micro/nanostructures and its possible applications in biological fields. We provide a summary of the current challenges facing the OEK technique and its future prospects at the end of this paper.

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Photonic Crystal Nanobeam Cavities for Nanoscale Optical Sensing: A Review

Da-Quan Yang, Bing Duan, Xiao Liu, Ai-Qiang Wang, Xiao-Gang Li and Yue-Feng Ji

The ability to detect nanoscale objects is particular crucial for a wide range of applications, such as environmental protection, early-stage disease diagnosis and drug discovery. Photonic crystal nanobeam cavity (PCNC) sensors have attracted great attention due to high-quality factors and small-mode volumes (Q/V) and good on-chip integrability with optical waveguides/circuits. In this review, we focus on nanoscale optical sensing based on PCNC sensors, including ultrahigh figure of merit (FOM) sensing, single nanoparticle trapping, label-free molecule detection and an integrated sensor array for multiplexed sensing. We believe that the PCNC sensors featuring ultracompact footprint, high monolithic integration capability, fast response and ultrahigh sensitivity sensing ability, etc., will provide a promising platform for further developing lab-on-a-chip devices for biosensing and other functionalities.

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Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Three-dimensional chirped Airy Complex-variable-function Gaussian vortex wave packets in a strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium

Xi Peng, Yingji He, and Dongmei Deng

Three-dimensional chirped Airy Complex-variable-function Gaussian vortex (CACGV) wave packets in a strongly nonlocal nonlinear medium (SNNM) are studied. By varying the distribution parameter, CACGV wave packets can rotate stably in a SNNM in different forms, including dipoles, elliptic vortices, and doughnuts. Numerical simulation results for the CACGV wave packets agree well with theoretical analysis results under zero perturbation. The Poynting vector related to the physics of the rotation phenomenon and the angular momentum as a torque corresponding to the force are also presented. Finally, the radiation forces of CACGV wave packets acting on a nanoparticle in a SNNM are discussed.

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3D control stretched length of lambda-phage WLC DNA molecule by nonlinear optical tweezers

Thang Nguyen Manh, Quy Ho Quang, Thanh Thai Doan, Tuan Doan Quoc, Viet Do Thanh & Khoa Doan Quoc

In this paper, the general Langevin equations of motion for the polystyrene bead linked to the lambda-phage worm-like chain DNA molecule embedded in the fluid under the nonlinear optical tweezers is derived in 3D space. Using the finite difference method, the dynamical properties of the bead trapped by the nonlinear optical tweezers using a thin layer of Acid Blue 29 are numerically studied. Results in, the stretched length of the lambda-phage worm-like chain DNA molecule can be controlled in 3D space by finely tuning of the laser power.

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Vangl2 acts at the interface between actin and N-cadherin to modulate mammalian neuronal outgrowth

Steve Dos-Santos Carvalho, Maite M Moreau, Yeri Esther Hien, Michael Garcia, Nathalie Aubailly, Deborah J Henderson, Vincent Studer, Nathalie Sans, Olivier Thoumine, Mireille Montcouquiol

Dynamic mechanical interactions between adhesion complexes and the cytoskeleton are essential for axon outgrowth and guidance. Whether planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins, which regulate cytoskeleton dynamics and appear necessary for some axon guidance, also mediate interactions with membrane adhesion is still unclear. Here we show that Vangl2 controls growth cone velocity by regulating the internal retrograde actin flow in an N-cadherin-dependent fashion. Single molecule tracking experiments show that the loss of Vangl2 decreased fast-diffusing N-cadherin membrane molecules and increased confined N-cadherin trajectories. Using optically manipulated N-cadherin-coated microspheres, we correlated this behavior to a stronger mechanical coupling of N-cadherin with the actin cytoskeleton. Lastly, we show that the spatial distribution of Vangl2 within the growth cone is selectively affected by an N-cadherin-coated substrate. Altogether, our data show that Vangl2 acts as a negative regulator of axonal outgrowth by regulating the strength of the molecular clutch between N-cadherin and the actin cytoskeleton.

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Nanophotonic Platforms for Chiral Sensing and Separation

Michelle L. Solomon, Amr A. E. Saleh, Lisa V. Poulikakos, John M. Abendroth, Loza F. Tadesse, Jennifer A. Dionne

Recent advances in nanophotonics lay the foundation toward highly sensitive and efficient chiral detection and separation methods. In this Account, we highlight our group’s effort to leverage nanoscale chiral light–matter interactions to detect, characterize, and separate enantiomers, potentially down to the single molecule level. Notably, certain resonant nanostructures can significantly enhance circular dichroism for improved chiral sensing and spectroscopy as well as high-yield enantioselective photochemistry. We first describe how achiral metallic and dielectric nanostructures can be utilized to increase the local optical chirality density by engineering the coupling between electric and magnetic optical resonances. While plasmonic nanoparticles locally enhance the optical chirality density, high-index dielectric nanoparticles can enable large-volume and uniform-sign enhancements in the optical chirality density. By overlapping these electric and magnetic resonances, local chiral fields can be enhanced by several orders of magnitude. We show how these design rules can enable high-yield enantioselective photochemistry and project a 2000-fold improvement in the yield of a photoionization reaction. Next, we discuss how optical forces can enable selective manipulation and separation of enantiomers. We describe the design of low-power enantioselective optical tweezers with the ability to trap sub-10 nm dielectric particles. We also characterize their chiral-optical forces with high spatial and force resolution using combined optical and atomic force microscopy. These optical tweezers exhibit an enantioselective optical force contrast exceeding 10 pN, enabling selective attraction or repulsion of enantiomers based on the illumination polarization. Finally, we discuss future challenges and opportunities spanning fundamental research to technology translation. Disease detection in the clinic as well as pharmaceutical and agrochemical industrial applications requiring large-scale, high-throughput production will gain particular benefit from the simplicity and relative low cost that nanophotonic platforms promise.

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Motion Reconstruction for Optical Tomography of Trapped Objects

Peter Elbau, Monika Ritsch-Marte, Otmar Scherzer and Denise Schmutz

Optical and acoustical trapping has been established as a tool for holding and moving microscopic particles suspended in a liquid in a contact-free and non-invasive manner. Opposed to standard microscopic imaging where the probe is fixated, this technique allows imaging in a more natural environment. This paper provides a method for estimating the movement of a transparent particle which is maneuvered by tweezers (assuming that the inner structure of the probe is not subject to local movements) by making use of the assumption of a smooth movement in time. The mathematical formulation of the motion estimation leads to an infinitesimal version of the common line technique used in cryogenic electron microscopy single particle imaging to estimate the orientations of the particles in the probe.

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