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Wednesday, April 26, 2017

Revealing the subfemtosecond dynamics of orbital angular momentum in nanoplasmonic vortices

G. Spektor, D. Kilbane, A. K. Mahro, B. Frank, S. Ristok, L. Gal, P. Kahl, D. Podbiel, S. Mathias, H. Giessen, F.-J. Meyer zu Heringdorf, M. Orenstein, M. Aeschlimann

The ability of light to carry and deliver orbital angular momentum (OAM) in the form of optical vortices has attracted much interest. The physical properties of light with a helical wavefront can be confined onto two-dimensional surfaces with subwavelength dimensions in the form of plasmonic vortices, opening avenues for thus far unknown light-matter interactions. Because of their extreme rotational velocity, the ultrafast dynamics of such vortices remained unexplored. Here we show the detailed spatiotemporal evolution of nanovortices using time-resolved two-photon photoemission electron microscopy. We observe both long- and short-range plasmonic vortices confined to deep subwavelength dimensions on the scale of 100 nanometers with nanometer spatial resolution and subfemtosecond time-step resolution. Finally, by measuring the angular velocity of the vortex, we directly extract the OAM magnitude of light.

DOI

AMPK negatively regulates tensin-dependent integrin activity

Maria Georgiadou, Johanna Lilja, Guillaume Jacquemet, Camilo Guzmán, Maria Rafaeva, Charlotte Alibert, Yan Yan, Pranshu Sahgal, Martina Lerche,  Jean-Baptiste Manneville, Tomi P. Mäkelä, Johanna Ivaska

Tight regulation of integrin activity is paramount for dynamic cellular functions such as cell matrix adhesion and mechanotransduction. Integrin activation is achieved through intracellular interactions at the integrin cytoplasmic tails and through integrin–ligand binding. In this study, we identify the metabolic sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a β1-integrin inhibitor in fibroblasts. Loss of AMPK promotes β1-integrin activity, the formation of centrally located active β1-integrin– and tensin-rich mature fibrillar adhesions, and cell spreading. Moreover, in the absence of AMPK, cells generate more mechanical stress and increase fibronectin fibrillogenesis. Mechanistically, we show that AMPK negatively regulates the expression of the integrin-binding proteins tensin1 and tensin3. Transient expression of tensins increases β1-integrin activity, whereas tensin silencing reduces integrin activity in fibroblasts lacking AMPK. Accordingly, tensin silencing in AMPK-depleted fibroblasts impedes enhanced cell spreading, traction stress, and fibronectin fiber formation. Collectively, we show that the loss of AMPK up-regulates tensins, which bind β1-integrins, supporting their activity and promoting fibrillar adhesion formation and integrin-dependent processes.

DOI

Single Molecule Investigation of Kinesin-1 Motility Using Engineered Microtubule Defects

Michael W. Gramlich, Leslie Conway, Winnie H. Liang, Joelle A. Labastide, Stephen J. King, Jing Xu & Jennifer L. Ross

The structure of the microtubule is tightly regulated in cells via a number of microtubule associated proteins and enzymes. Microtubules accumulate structural defects during polymerization, and defect size can further increase under mechanical stresses. Intriguingly, microtubule defects have been shown to be targeted for removal via severing enzymes or self-repair. The cell’s control in defect removal suggests that defects can impact microtubule-based processes, including molecular motor-based intracellular transport. We previously demonstrated that microtubule defects influence cargo transport by multiple kinesin motors. However, mechanistic investigations of the observed effects remained challenging, since defects occur randomly during polymerization and are not directly observable in current motility assays. To overcome this challenge, we used end-to-end annealing to generate defects that are directly observable using standard epi-fluorescence microscopy. We demonstrate that the annealed sites recapitulate the effects of polymerization-derived defects on multiple-motor transport, and thus represent a simple and appropriate model for naturally-occurring defects. We found that single kinesins undergo premature dissociation, but not preferential pausing, at the annealed sites. Our findings provide the first mechanistic insight to how defects impact kinesin-based transport. Preferential dissociation on the single-molecule level has the potential to impair cargo delivery at locations of microtubule defect sites in vivo.

DOI

Single-molecule observation of DNA compaction by meiotic protein SYCP3

Johanna L Syrjänen Iddo Heller Andrea Candelli Owen R Davies Erwin J G Peterman Gijs J L Wuite Luca Pellegrini

In a previous paper (Syrjänen et al., 2014), we reported the first structural characterisation of a synaptonemal complex (SC) protein, SYCP3, which led us to propose a model for its role in chromosome compaction during meiosis. As a component of the SC lateral element, SYCP3 has a critical role in defining the specific chromosome architecture required for correct meiotic progression. In the model, the reported compaction of chromosomal DNA caused by SYCP3 would result from its ability to bridge distant sites on a DNA molecule with the DNA-binding domains located at each end of its strut-like structure. Here, we describe a single-molecule assay based on optical tweezers, fluorescence microscopy and microfluidics that, in combination with bulk biochemical data, provides direct visual evidence for our proposed mechanism of SYCP3-mediated chromosome organisation.

DOI

Formation of Large Hypericin Aggregates in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles—Experiments and Modeling

Jaroslava Joniova, Matúš Rebič, Alena Strejčková, Veronika Huntosova, Jana Staničová, Daniel Jancura, Pavol Miskovsky, Gregor Bánó

The incorporation of hypericin (Hyp) from aqueous solutions into giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) membranes has been studied experimentally and by means of kinetic Monte Carlo modeling. The time evolution of Hyp fluorescence originating from Hyp monomers dissolved in the GUV membrane has been recorded by confocal microscopy and while trapping individual GUVs in optical tweezers. It was shown that after reaching a maximum, the fluorescence intensity gradually decreased toward longer times. Formation of oversized Hyp clusters has been observed on the GUV surface at prolonged time. A simplified kinetic Monte Carlo model is presented to follow the aggregation/dissociation processes of Hyp molecules in the membrane. The simulation results reproduced the basic experimental observations: the scaling of the characteristic fluorescence decay time with the vesicle diameter and the buildup of large Hyp clusters in the GUV membrane.

DOI

Wednesday, April 19, 2017

Photonic and Plasmonic Nanotweezing of Nano- and Microscale Particles

Donato Conteduca, Francesco Dell’Olio, Thomas F. Krauss, and Caterina Ciminelli

The ability to manipulate and sense biological molecules is important in many life science domains, such as single-molecule biophysics, the development of new drugs and cancer detection. Although the manipulation of biological matter at the nanoscale continues to be a challenge, several types of nanotweezers based on different technologies have recently been demonstrated to address this challenge. In particular, photonic and plasmonic nanotweezers are attracting a strong research effort especially because they are efficient and stable, they offer fast response time, and avoid any direct physical contact with the target object to be trapped, thus preventing its disruption or damage. In this paper, we critically review photonic and plasmonic resonant technologies for biomolecule trapping, manipulation, and sensing at the nanoscale, with a special emphasis on hybrid photonic/plasmonic nanodevices allowing a very strong light–matter interaction. The state-of-the-art of competing technologies, e.g., electronic, magnetic, acoustic and carbon nanotube-based nanotweezers, and a description of their applications are also included.

DOI

Dynamics of an optically bound structure made of particles of unequal sizes

Vítězslav Karásek, Martin Šiler, Oto Brzobohatý, and Pavel Zemánek

This theoretical study based on the coupled dipoles model focuses on the dynamics of two optically bound dielectric spheres of unequal sizes confined in counter-propagating incoherent Bessel beams. We analyzed the relative motion of the particles with respect to each other and defined conditions where they form a stable optically bound structure (OBS). We also investigated the motion of the center of mass of the OBS and found that its direction depends on the particle separation in the structure. Besides the optical interaction between objects, we also considered a hydrodynamic coupling in order to obtain more precise results for moving an OBS.

DOI

Computational inverse design of non-intuitive illumination patterns to maximize optical force or torque

Yoonkyung E. Lee, Owen D. Miller, M. T. Homer Reid, Steven G. Johnson, and Nicholas X. Fang

This paper aims to maximize optical force or torque on arbitrary micro- and nanoscale objects using numerically optimized structured illumination. By developing a numerical framework for computer-automated design of 3d vector-field illumination, we demonstrate a 20-fold enhancement in optical torque per intensity over circularly polarized plane wave on a model plasmonic particle. The nonconvex optimization is efficiently performed by combining a compact cylindrical Bessel basis representation with a fast boundary element method and a standard derivative-free, local optimization algorithm. We analyze the optimization results for 2000 random initial configurations, discuss the tradeoff between robustness and enhancement, and compare the different effects of multipolar plasmon resonances on enhancing force or torque. All results are obtained using open-source computational software available online.

DOI

Characterization of single airborne particle extinction using the tunable optical trap-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) in the UV

Zhiyong Gong, Yong-Le Pan, and Chuji Wang

We integrated a rigid optical trap into a tunable pulsed cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OT-CRDS) system to characterize the extinction of single airborne particles in the UV spectral region (306-315 nm). Single solid particles from a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), Bermuda grass smut spore, carbon microsphere, and blackened polyethylene microsphere were trapped in air based on the photophoretic force. The improved OT-CRDS system was highly sensitive and able to resolve extinctions of single particles from different materials and sizes at a given wavelength. Further, we successfully manipulated the number of particles, e.g., 1, 2 or more particles, in the trap and measured their distinguishable extinctions using the OT-CRDS. We also show that the particle size and extinction have a good linear correlation from the measurements of 24 single MWCNT particles. Material- and wavelength-dependent extinctions of the four types of airborne particles were also characterized. Results reveal that single airborne particles regardless of their differences in material and size, due to their heterogeneous morphology, have individual-particle dependent extinctions and that dependence can be resolved and characterized using the OT-CRDS technique.

DOI

Thermometry of levitated nanoparticles in a hybrid electro-optical trap

E B Aranas, P Z G Fonseca, P F Barker and T S Monteiro

There have been recent rapid developments in stable trapping of levitated nanoparticles in high vacuum. Cooling of nanoparticles, from phonon occupancies of 107 down to $\simeq \,100\mbox{--}1000$ phonons, have already been achieved by several groups. Prospects for quantum ground-state cooling seem extremely promising. Cavity-cooling without added stabilisation by feedback cooling remains challenging, but trapping at high vacuum in a cavity is now possible through the addition of a Paul trap. However, the Paul trap has been found to qualitatively modify the cavity output spectrum, with the latter acquiring an atypical 'split-sideband' structure, of different form from the displacement spectrum, and which depends on N, the optical well at which the particle localises. In the present work we investigate the N-dependence of the dynamics, in particular with respect to thermometry: we show that in strong cooling regions $N\gtrsim 100$, the temperature may still be reliably inferred from the cavity output spectra. We also explain the N-dependence of the mechanical frequencies and optomechanical coupling showing that these may be accurately estimated. We present a simple 'fast-cavity' model for the cavity output and test all our findings against full numerical solutions of the nonlinear stochastic equations of motion for the system.

DOI