Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Optical trapping and moving of microparticles by using asymmetrical Laguerre–Gaussian beams

Alexey A. Kovalev, Victor V. Kotlyar, and Alexey P. Porfirev

We considered a generalization of the Laguerre–Gaussian (LG) laser beam family by using a complex shift of the beam complex amplitude in Cartesian coordinates. In this case, LG-beams lose their axial symmetry. The normalized orbital angular momentum is the sum of the beam topological charge and the term which is in square dependence on the asymmetry parameter. By optical trapping and moving the polystyrene microspheres in the focus of the asymmetric LG-beam, it is proven that the velocity of the microspheres increases with increasing the asymmetry parameter and constant topological charge.


Surface plasmon-enhanced optical trapping of quantum-dot-conjugated surface molecules on neurons cultured on a plasmonic chip

Kohei Miyauchi, Keiko Tawa, Suguru N. Kudoh, Takahisa Taguchi and Chie Hosokawa

Living neurons in a complex neuronal network communicate with each other through synaptic connections. The molecular dynamics of cell surface molecules localized at synaptic terminals is essential for functional connections via synaptic plasticity in the neuronal network. Here, we demonstrate surface-plasmon-resonance-based optical trapping using a plasmonic chip toward realizing effective manipulation of molecules on the surface of neurons. Surface-plasmon-enhanced optical trapping was evaluated by the fluorescence analysis of nanoparticles suspended in water and neural cell adhesion molecules (NCAMs) labeled with quantum dots (Q-dots) on rat hippocampal neurons. The motion of nanoparticles in water and the molecular dynamics of NCAMs on neuronal cells cultured on a plasmonic chip were constrained at the laser focus more effectively than those on a glass substrate because of the surface plasmon resonance effect.


Near-field probing of Bloch surface waves in a dielectric multilayer using photonic force microscopy

Daniil A. Shilkin, Evgeny V. Lyubin, Irina V. Soboleva, and Andrey A. Fedyanin

The potential of photonic force microscopy (PFM) for probing the optical near-field in the vicinity of a dielectric multilayer is demonstrated. An experimental study of Bloch surface waves (BSWs) using PFM is described in detail. The applied technique is based on measuring the BSW-induced gradient force acting on a probe particle combined with precise control of the distance between the particle and the multilayer surface. The BSW-induced potential profile measured using PFM is presented. The force interaction between the probe and the BSW evanescent field is numerically studied. The results indicate that a polystyrene particle with a diameter of 1 μm does not significantly perturb the BSW field and can be used to probe the optical near-field intensity in an elegant, noninvasive manner.


Two-Photon Fluorescence Tracking of Colloidal Clusters

Debjit Roy, Dipankar Mondal, Debabrata Goswami

In situ dynamics of colloidal cluster formation from nanoparticles is yet to be addressed. Using two-photon fluorescence (TPF) that has been amply used for single particle tracking, we demonstrate in situ measurement of effective three-dimensional optical trap stiffness of nanoparticles and their aggregates without using any position sensitive detector. Optical trap stiffness is an essential measure of the strength of an optical trap. TPF is a zero-background detection scheme and has excellent signal-to-noise-ratio, which can be easily extended to study the formation of colloidal cluster of nanospheres in the optical trapping regime. TPF tracking can successfully distinguish colloidal cluster from its monomer.


Tuesday, May 24, 2016

A Comprehensive Review of Optical Stretcher for Cell Mechanical Characterization at Single-Cell Level

Tie Yang, Francesca Bragheri and Paolo Minzioni

This paper presents a comprehensive review of the development of the optical stretcher, a powerful optofluidic device for single cell mechanical study by using optical force induced cell stretching. The different techniques and the different materials for the fabrication of the optical stretcher are first summarized. A short description of the optical-stretching mechanism is then given, highlighting the optical force calculation and the cell optical deformability characterization. Subsequently, the implementations of the optical stretcher in various cell-mechanics studies are shown on different types of cells. Afterwards, two new advancements on optical stretcher applications are also introduced: the active cell sorting based on cell mechanical characterization and the temperature effect on cell stretching measurement from laser-induced heating. Two examples of new functionalities developed with the optical stretcher are also included. Finally, the current major limitation and the future development possibilities are discussed.


Graded-index optical dimer formed by optical force

Alireza Akbarzadeh, Thomas Koschny, Maria Kafesaki, Eleftherios N. Economou, and Costas M. Soukoulis

We propose an optical dimer formed from two spherical lenses bound by the pressure that light exerts on matter. With the help of the method of force tracing, we find the required graded-index profiles of the lenses for the existence of the dimer. We study the dynamics of the opto-mechanical interaction of lenses under the illumination of collimated light beams and quantitatively validate the performance of proposed dimer. We also examine the stability of dimer due to the lateral misalignments and we show how restoring forces bring the dimer into lateral equilibrium. The dimer can be employed in various practical applications such as optical manipulation, sensing and imaging.


Improved calibration of the nonlinear regime of a single-beam gradient optical trap

Jamianne C. Wilcox, Benjamin J. Lopez, Otger Campàs, and Megan T. Valentine

We report an improved method for calibrating the nonlinear region of a single-beam gradient optical trap. Through analysis of the position fluctuations of a trapped object that is displaced from the trap center by controlled flow we measure the local trap stiffness in both the linear and nonlinear regimes without knowledge of the magnitude of the applied external forces. This approach requires only knowledge of the system temperature, and is especially useful for measurements involving trapped objects of unknown size, or objects in a fluid of unknown viscosity.


Lateral shearing optical gradient force in coupled nanobeam photonic crystal cavities

Han Du, Xingwang Zhang, Jie Deng, Yunshan Zhao, Fook Siong Chau and Guangya Zhou

We report the experimental observation of lateral shearing optical gradient forces in nanoelectromechanical systems(NEMS) controlled dual-coupled photonic crystal(PhC) nanobeam cavities. With an on-chip integrated NEMS actuator, the coupled cavities can be mechanically reconfigured in the lateral direction while maintaining a constant coupling gap. Shearing optical gradient forces are generated when the two cavity centers are laterally displaced. In our experiments, positive and negative lateral shearing optical forces of 0.42 nN and 0.29 nN are observed with different pumping modes. This study may broaden the potential applications of the optical gradient force in nanophotonic devices and benefit the future nanooptoelectromechanical systems.


Monday, May 23, 2016

Formation of stable cell–cell contact without a solid/gel scaffold: Non-invasive manipulation by laser under depletion interaction with a polymer

Shu Hashimoto, Aoi Yoshida, Taeko Ohta, Hiroaki Taniguchi, Koichiro Sadakane, Kenichi Yoshikawa

We report a novel method for constructing a stable three-dimensional cellular assembly in the absence of a solid or gel scaffold. A targeted cell was transferred to another cell, and the two were kept in contact for a few minutes by optical manipulation in an aqueous medium containing a hydrophilic polymer. Interestingly, this cell–cell adhesion was maintained even after elimination of the polymer. We discuss the mechanism of the formation of stable multi-cellular adhesion in terms of spontaneous rearrangement of the components embedded in the pair of facing membranes.


Graphene-based multilayer resonance structure to enhance the optical pressure on a Mie particle

Abdollah Hassanzadeh; Mohammadbagher Mohammadnezhad

We theoretically investigate the optical force exerted on a Mie dielectric particle in the evanescent field of a graphene-based resonance multilayer structure using the arbitrary beam theory and the theory of multilayer films. The resonance structure consists of several thin films including a dielectric film (MgF2MgF2), a metal film (silver or gold), and several graphene layers which are located on a prism base. The effects of the metal film thickness and the number of graphene layers on the optical force are numerically investigated. The thickness of the metal layer and the number of graphene layers are optimized to reach the highest optical force. The numerical results show that an optimized composition of graphene and gold leads to a higher optical force compared to that of the graphene and silver. The optical force was enhanced resonantly by four orders of magnitude for the resonance structure containing graphene and a gold film and by three orders of magnitude for the structure containing graphene and a silver film compared to other similar resonance structures. We hope that the results presented in this paper can provide an excellent means of improving the optical manipulation of particles and enable the provision of effective optical tweezers, micromotors, and microaccelelators.