Ronnie Willaert, Sandor Kasas, Bart Devreese and Giovanni Dietler
Yeast nanobiotechnology is a recent field where nanotechniques are used to manipulate and analyse yeast cells and cell constituents at the nanoscale. The aim of this review is to give an overview and discuss nanobiotechnological analysis and manipulation techniques that have been particularly applied to yeast cells. These techniques have mostly been applied to the model yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccaromyces pombe, and the pathogenic model yeast Candida albicans. Nanoscale imaging techniques, such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including electron tomography) are reviewed and discussed. Other nano-analysis methods include single-molecule and single-cell force spectroscopy and the AFM-cantilever-based nanomotion analysis of living cells. Next, an overview is given on nano/microtechniques to pattern and manipulate yeast cells. Finally, direct contact cell manipulation methods, such as AFM-based single cell manipulation and micropipette manipulation of yeast cells, as well as non-contact cell manipulation techniques, such as optical, electrical, and magnetic cells manipulation methods are reviewed.